Fruit and Vegetable Invaders
Invasive species can inflict losses on NYS agriculture by reducing crop production, increasing food prices faced by consumers, undermine export potential, and damage environmental or resource values. According to the USDA, NYS field crops, fruits and vegetables returned well over $1 billion to New York farmers.
Pink Hibiscus Mealybug (PHM) (Maconellicoccus hirsutus): a sap-sucking tropical insect, which is typically observed as clusters of small soft-bodied insects in cotton-like masses covering buds, stems, fruit and roots, and in extreme cases the entire plant. PHM eggs over winter in bark crevices, leaf scars, under bark, in the soil, tree boles, inside fruit clusters, and inside crumpled leaf clusters. The PHM has a life cycle of 24 to 30 days. The female mealybug produces more than ten (10) generations per year in colonies of 500 eggs or more. It feeds on the sap of the plant and releases toxic substances causing injury and death to the plant. It is spread by wind, ants, tropical storms, and movement of infested cut flowers and tropical nursery stock.
Winter Moth (WMM) (Operophtera brumata): a pest in Europe that was introduced to Nova Scotia during the 1950's. It has since established in the Pacific North West of the United States, western and eastern Canada, and since 2003 Massachusetts and Rhode Island. Early instars feed on developing buds, but later stages consume foliage. It is important because of a broad host range, including a variety of fruit crops (including apples, blueberries, and cherries), trees (including maple, oak, ash, birch, elm, linden, and crabapples), and ornamental plants (including Viburnum, roses, and many other perennials).
For more information:
European Crane Fly (ECF) (Tipula paludosa (Meigen) & T. oleracea (Linnaeus): Adults emerge in late summer and early fall. As adults emerge, the leathery, shiny pupal cases (leatherjackets) are an indicator of where crane fly larvae were living and where the next eggs are most likely to hatch. The adults mate almost immediately after they emerge. The females lay most of their eggs before they make their first flights.
For more information: www.nysipm.cornell.edu/factsheets/turfgrass/ecf.pdf
Swede Midge (SMM) (Contarinia nasturtii): Adult swede midge emerge from the soil in the spring. After mating, females lay clusters of eggs on growing points of crucifer plants. After hatching, larvae feed gregariously in protected areas of the plant. Mature larvae "jump" to the ground and burrow for pupation. Swede midge is found throughout Canada, and Europe, from Mediterranean countries North into Scandinavia, and was detected in six New York counties in 2005, seven more in 2006, and nine counties in 2007.
For more information: www.nysipm.cornell.edu/factsheets/vegetables/cruc/sm.pdf
Southern Bacterial Wilt (SBW) (Ralstonia solanacearum race 3 biovar 2 race 3 biovar 2): A bacterial pathogen that causes a wilt disease in several important ornamental and agricultural crops. Ralstonia is present in Europe, Asia, South and Central America and Australia. This pathogen was detected and eradicated in NH and VT greenhouses that received imported geranium plants in 2003 from Kenya. In early 2004, three cultivars of Guatemalan geraniums were detected in Eden, New York and subsequently eradicated. It can be transmitted through soil, contaminated irrigation water, equipment or personnel. No detection of Ralstonia occurred during 2005 - 2007 geranium surveys.
For more information: www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/ralstonia/index.shtml
Fruit Tree Tortrix Moth (FTM) (Archips podana): a fruit pest in Europe, Asia Minor, Japan and northern Asia. Large caterpillars feed on leaves and fruit of mainly apple, but will feed on pear, plum, cherry, apricot, walnut, blackberry, raspberry, hop, and rose. Adults emerge in mid-June to mid-August and lay scale-like egg clusters of 50-100 on upper surfaces of host leaves. Once hatched, the larvae will disperse and feed singly under a silk web on the underside midrib. A second generation will emerge in September and over-winter as young larvae under bud scales or a leaf firmly stuck to the branch.
For more information: http://whatcom.wsu.edu/pestsurvey/podana/ArchipsPodanaSurvey_files/frame.htm
Plum Pox Virus (PPV) (Potyviruses): is a disease caused by a virus. This virus infects stone fruit species such as peach, apricot, nectarine, cherry and almond. PPV also has the ability to infect wild native species and weed species. PPV infection causes symptoms in the leaves and fruit, in addition it reduces the quantity and quality of fruit. Cooperative PPV detection survey in 2006 marked the seventh year committed by USDA-AHPIS-PPQ and NYS-DAM. Up until June 20, 2006, all confirmations were negative and through these collected samples the first confirmed positive sample was taken from Niagara County.
For more information: www.agriculture.ny.gov/PI/ppv/ppv.html