Forest Health Invaders
New York is properly named the Empire State, home of the 6 million-acre Adirondack Park, the largest park in the United States excluding Alaska and Hawaii. Lumber and other forest products are critical natural and renewable raw resources for the lumber/paper industry. Historically our forest health has been challenged by European Gypsy Moth (1869), Dutch Elm Disease (1931) vectored by European Bark Beetle (1930), Hemlock Woolly Adelgid (1924), Japanese Beetles (1956), Asian Longhorned Beetle (1996), Sudden Oak Death (2001), Emerald Ash Borer (2002), Sirex Wood Wasp (2004), Bacterial Leaf Scorch (2006). According to USDA Forest Service the "present liquidation" values of NYS timber is: (ie. Invasive pest associated)
- 1. White Ash - $1.9 billion (Emerald Ash Borer)
- 2. Two-needle Pine (Red, Austrian, and Scotch) - $144 million (Sirex Wood Wasp)
- 3. Hemlock - $380 million (Hemlock Woolly Adelgid)
- 4. Red and White Oak - $4.8 billion (Bacterial Leaf Scorch and Sudden Oak Death)
- 5. Sugar and Red Maple - $10 million (Asian Longhorned Beetle)
Asian Longhorned Beetle (ALB) (Anoplophora glabripennis): Wood boring beetles native to China, they attack a wide variety of hardwood species including maples, elms, poplars and willows. Infestations have been found in NY, IL, NJ and Ontario, Canada. Adult beetles are large, shiny black with white spots and have long white and black antenna. Signs of an infestation include crown dieback, sawdust frass in strands, large exit holes, and tree mortality.
For more information:
Wood Boring Beetle (WBB): as the global movement of people and goods increases, so does the introduction threat of non-indigenous or invasive exotic insects. WBB has the potential to kill millions of trees in urban and native forest ecosystems. One common entry pathway for WBB is through contaminated dunnage or solid wood packing materials. Shipping materials such as boxes, crates and pallets are occasionally infested with non-indigenous beetles. Key WBB detection locations are comprised of mixed conifer hot zones and deciduous woodlots and hedgerows near regional industrial parks. During the course of the year, NYS’s ports-of-call, shipping/distribution sites, landfills, and governmental storage depots will be inspected seasonally. WBB targets: Citrus Longhorned, Asian Longhorned, Oriental Citrus Longhorned, Japanese Longhorned, Bamboo Longhorned, Brown Spruce Longhorned, Tetropium castaneum and Xylotrechus spp.
For more information: www.barkbeetles.org
Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) (Agrilus planipennis): An exotic pest of ash trees in the landscape, nurseries and wooded areas; recently detected in MI, OH, IN, IL, PA, MD, WV and Ontario, Canada. Adult beetles are dark metallic green in color, 1/2" in length, and present from mid-May until late July. Larvae are creamy white in color and are found under the bark. Signs of an infection include tree canopy dieback, yellowing or browning of leaves and main trunk sprouting. Panel traps are being used in 2008 for early detection across NYS.
For more information: www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/emerald_ash_b/background.shtml
Sirex Wood Wasp (SWW) (Sirex noctilio): is native of Europe, Asia, and northern Africa and has successfully established in pine plantations in South Africa, South America, Australia and New Zealand where it causes significant tree mortality. It is attracted to trees under stress (from drought, fire, and other debilitating conditions). These trees are often used to make solid wood packing material (SWPM). Since the lifecycle can take a year or more, the insects are often transported in pallets or other SWPM. NY-CAPS detected SWW in twenty-five counties and Canada has confirmed in Ontario and negative in Quebec.
For more information:
Bacterial Leaf Scorch (BLS) (Xylella fastidiosa): is a disease that affects oak, sycamore, elm, mulberry, and maple throughout the eastern United States. It is one of a group of diseases caused by the xylem-limited bacterium – Xylella fastiosa. In New Jersey, BLS causes leaf scorch and decline primarily on mature red and pin oaks planted as landscape and street trees. The disease was first identified 15 years ago and has since increased to alarming proportions (up to 44%) in some areas. Survey emphasis for BLS will focus on that area of the state closest to the known area of BLS spread and transmission.
For more information: www.usna.usda.gov/Research/BacterialLeafScorch.html
Asian Gypsy Moth (AGM) (Lymantria dispar): feeds on over 500 trees and shrubs including larch, oak, poplar, alder, willow, and some evergreens. Unlike European Gypsy Moths, AGM has a broader host range. AGM females can fly, enabling expansion of their range and exacerbating economic and ecological consequences. Because of the threat it poses, survey is needed for years to come. In 2006, New York State trapped and inspected
semi-monthly for a total of 244 state inspections and 172 federal inspections. Current AGM survey is focused on expanded ports of call and any shift in distribution cargo containers.
For more information: www.aphis.usda.gov/plant_health/plant_pest_info/gypsy_moth/index.shtml